Feeling pain is not pleasant and the lower back is less so. Lumbar pain or low back pain is one of the biggest reasons to go to health professionals. Lower back pain only loses for the cold in taking people to doctors. After 60 years, doctor visits are more frequent, and 80% of the world population will experience the symptoms of low back pain during their lifetime.
Let's get to know a bit more about low back pain.
The lumbar is the lowest part of the spine. It is close to the pelvis and sometimes the pain in that area can be mistaken for abdominal or pelvic pain.
Low back pain is not a disease; it is just a type of pain that can have several causes.
Doctors divide lumbar pain into two types: acute and chronic.
The acute one happens by sudden injury like a muscular stretch, being a strong pain that appears after a physical effort, for example.
Chronic low back pain can affect people of all ages, with the pain being moderate to very intense, usually lasting more than three months, resulting in significant physical disability.
Low back pain is more common than you think, especially in older people. A study conducted in the United States showed that about $ 20 billion a year is spent on treatment, being one of the most responsible for absences from work and its economic repercussions.
The peak incidence of this pain occurs between the fourth and sixth decade of life, that is, in people who are still of working age. So if you have already suffered or are suffering from the problem do not be scared.
Other medical studies show that up to 90% of adults will experience an episode of low back pain during their lifetime, with up to 55% of people experiencing a pain crisis in the last year!
Types of Lumbar Pain
Men and women are equally affected by lower back pain, which can range in intensity from a dull, constant pain to a sudden, sharp sensation that leaves the person incapacitated.
The pain may start suddenly as a result of an accident or lifting something heavy, or it may develop over time due to changes related to the age of the spine (disc degeneration, arthrosis of the spine).
A sedentary lifestyle may also predispose to lower back pain, especially when a few physical activity routines during the week are scored with stunting exercises over the weekend.
There are two main types of low back pain: acute and chronic. There is also subacute pain.
The Main causes of Lumbar pain
Inadequate posture / poor posture
Muscle inflammation or distension
Myofascial Pain Syndrome
Emotional problems, anxiety and stress
What are the risk factors for developing low back pain?
In addition to underlying diseases, other risk factors may raise the risk for low back pain, including:
Age: The first attack of low back pain usually occurs between the ages of 30 and 50, and back pain becomes more common with advancing age. As people age, the loss of bone strength from osteoporosis can lead to fractures, and at the same time, decrease elasticity and muscle tone. The intervertebral discs begin to lose fluid and flexibility with age (disc degeneration), which diminishes their ability to cushion the vertebrae. The risk of spinal stenosis also increases with age.
Physical fitness level: Back pain is more common among people who are not physically fit. Weak abdominal and lumbar muscles may not properly support the spine. "Weekend athletes" - people who go out and exercise long after being inactive throughout the week - are more likely to suffer painful back injuries than people who do moderate physical activity as a daily habit. Studies show that low-impact aerobic exercise is beneficial for maintaining the integrity of the intervertebral discs.
Pregnancy is usually accompanied by low back pain, which results from changes in weight bearing and pelvic changes. Lumbar symptoms almost always resolve after childbirth.
Weight gain: Being overweight, obese or quickly gaining a significant amount of weight can put pressure on the back and lead to lower back pain.
Genetics: Some causes of back pain, such as ankylosing spondylitis (a form of autoimmune arthritis that involves fusion of the spinal joints leading to some immobility of the spine) has a genetic component.
Occupational risk factors: Having a job that requires weight lifting, or repetitive movements involving spinal twists and inappropriate postures, can lead to injuries and back pain. An office work can also contribute to the pain, especially if you have poor posture or sit all day in an improper backrest chair.
Mental health factors: Pre-existing mental health issues such as anxiety and depression can influence chronic pain as well as the perception of its severity. Pain that becomes chronic can also contribute to the development of such psychological factors. Stress can affect the body in several ways, including causing muscle tension.
Backpack overload in children: Lumbar pain unrelated to injury or other known cause is uncommon in children. However, a backpack, overloaded with books and materials can stretch the musculature and ligaments, and cause muscle fatigue. The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons recommends that a child's backpack should weigh no more than 15 to 20 percent of the child's body weight.
Physiotherapy for Lower Back Treatment - Low back Physio
Apparatus such as short waves, ultrasound, transcutaneous electrical stimulation, laser can be used to combat inflammation and bring relief of pain improving the day to day of the person. However, the physiotherapist may indicate other equipment if he or she feels it is right for your patient.
The stretching exercises can be performed passively always respecting the limit of the pain and as soon as it regresses, it is possible to advance with the stretching, to increase the amplitude of the movements and to diminish their rigidity. When there is no pain, it is possible for the person to perform stretching actively.
Some stretching and strengthening exercises are performed in global postural re-education protocols where the person needs to stand in the same position for about 10 minutes. During this period while some muscles are being stretched, others are being strengthened in order to reorganize the entire bone structure and joints, eliminating the causes of pain.
To avoid spinal rotation, one must initiate muscle strengthening with static stability exercises in a closed kinetic chain, so that sitting, lying or ball exercises of various sizes can be used to provide resistance or support.
Strengthening can initially be accomplished with the resistance of the therapist's hand and gradually different weights must be introduced for the muscle to recover. Elastic bands such as theraband should be used before the anglers and their resistance should increase, as there is improvement of the presented symptoms.
Rotational stability exercises in open kinetic chain can then be introduced, which can be performed with the person lying on the side, for the strengthening of the buttocks and anterior and lateral region of the thighs. To progress, mobility exercises can be used that work the 4 limbs at the same time and favour the movement of the body with or without rotation of the spine.
Lastly, motor coordination exercises should be used because they require agility and complete absence of pain, and it is useful to improve all muscular functioning and healing.
Pilates is very recommended as a rehabilitation exercise due to is an impact free exercise.
The best exercises for low back pain are the Pilates Clinic exercises.
4. Vertebral manipulation
This is a manual technique performed by the physiotherapist such as the GPR (Global Postural Reeducation) that can be indicated to release the tension in the articulations of the spine, TMJ and sacroiliac, for example. It is especially indicated when there is some postural change like scoliosis or hyperlordosis but it can not be used in any case of low back pain and requires dexterity when performed in people with a herniated disc, for example.
5. Hot packs
At the end of treatment and at home to bring relief from possible discomforts that may arise it may be indicated to put a bag of warm water to ease the pain for about 20 minutes before bedtime and the relaxation massages may also be indicated for relief from Pain and improves local blood circulation.
Signs of improvement and worsening
Signs of improvement are observed in the first few days of treatment, especially when the person is able to stand, avoiding exertion and follow all the physiotherapist and doctor's instructions that may include not carrying heavy bags, not holding children or babies in the lap and avoiding Wear high heels, for example.